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The erstwhile Garhwa Subdivision of Palamau district consisting of 8 Blocks was separated from Palamau district as an independent district “Garhwa” with effect from 1st April 1991. It is situated on Southwest corner of Palamau division, which lies between 23060’and 24039’ N latitude and 83022’ and 84000’ E longitude. The district is surrounded by river Sone in the north; Palamau district and area of Chhatisgarh in the south; Palamau district in the east and Sarguja district of Chhatisgarh and Sonebhadra district of U.P. in the west.

Garhwa district is a part of Palamau Commissionery consisting of 14 blocks and two subdivisions namely Garhwa & Nagar-Untrai. At the time of creation of new district Garhwa, there were eight old blocks namely:-
1. Garhwa, 2. Meral, 3. Ranka, 4. Bhandariya, 5. Majhiyaon, 6. Nagar-Untrai, 7. Bhawanathpur, and 8. Dhurki. Later on 6 new blocks were created from old blocks on administrative ground namely 1. Dandai, 2. Chiniya, 3. Kharoundhi, 4. Ramna, 5. Ramkanda and 6. Kandi. Later on 5 new blocks were created from old 14 blocks on administrative ground namely 1. Danda, 2. Ketar, 3. Bishunpura, 4. Bardiha and 5. Sagma.

So presently there are 19 blocks in Garhwa district. There are 196 Gram Panchayats. 916 inhabited villages and 62 un-habited (Bechiragi) villages in this district. This district has two police sub-division named Garhwa and Nagar-Untrai. With eight police stations i.e.
1. Garhwa 2. Meral 3. Ranka 4. Bhandariya 5. Majhiyaon 6. Nagar-Untrai 7. Bhawanathpur and 8. Dhurki.
The district contains only one Municipal town at Garhwa head quarter.

Natural Formation
The average elevation of Garhwa district in about 1200 feet above the mean sea level. The hills in the district are widely scattered. There are also low land in Northern and Western part of the district which is suitable for agricultural purposes. The hill which is called Gulgulpath -3819 ft. is said to be second highest peak in Jharkhand or joint Bihar after Paras Nath situated in Bhandriya Block of the district. A village Saruat situated on hill Gulgulpath is well worth a visit by the hikers. The village is occupied mostly by Korwas, a tribal people.

River System
The general line of drainage is from south to north towards the river Koyal and Sone. Koyal forms the eastern boundary and Sone forms northern boundary of the district. There are also a host of smaller streams, most of which are from mountain currents with rock stream beds. Other important rivers of the district are Danro, Sarsatiya, Tahale, Annaraj, Urea, Bai Banki, Bellaiti, Pando, Biraha, and Sapahi. Other notable river is Kanhar which forms south eastern boundary of the district for about 80 K.M. Due to its Geographical formation Garhwa district is rich in water resources.

Climate Condition
The climate of this district is on the whole dry and bracing. The year can be divided in to three main seasons, the winter season form November to March, the summer season is from March to May and Monsoon season from June to September; October is a transitional month between Monsoon and Winter seasons. The average annual rainfall for the district as a whole is 1.335 mm/ 52.55 inches. From the onset of the Monsoon by the middle of June, rainfall rapidly increases reaching the peak level in August. The annual variation of rainfall is not much. December and January are the coolest months. By March temperature begin to rise steadily. In May and early part of June the maximum temperature can be as high as 470C on individual days. Humidity is generally normal in this district, except in Monsoon months.

Land Use and Crops
Garhwa lies partially under the rain shadow area and often haunted by drought. Although yearly average rainfall is sufficient for agriculture work but unequal distribution of seasonal rain affects the main crops badly. During summer season water level of the district goes down and large number of villages have to face scarcity of water. Due to drought a section of agricultural labour my grated every year to nearby district of other state for employment and livelihood. But due to development work of the Govt. and Minor & Major irrigational work in recent years agricultural work has developed to a large extent. Rice is the main staple food of the district and it is chiefly grown. Maize and wheat are other notable crops. Sugarcane, Oilseeds, Pulses and vegetables are also grown in the district the seed collection of sal, mahua, semal and other forest produce like lac, kendu leaves, etc are also part of income for some period there are 35730.50 Hector of agricultural land in the district. Approximately per capita land holding is 0.17 Hector.


History –
On 6th May 1924. the Garhwa Union Board was created under the village administration Act of 1922. when it become Union Board. Its board consisted of five elected and two nominated members and they worked under part-IV of the above-mentioned Act. The Union Board administered the function of Conservancy and sanitation including drainage of local area, street lighting and the prevention of public nuisance there in. On 9th August 1957 Garhwa Union Board was abolished and in its place a Notified Area Committee was established by the Government Notification no. 6991-L.S.G., dated 14th June 1957. The N.A.C. area consisted of there villages: Garhwa, Tandawa, Sahijana, Dipawa, Nagawa. Pipara Kala, Unchari and Sonpurawa, Later on this N.A.C. got the status of Municipality. It has been working as Municipality since 15 August 1972.

Early History
The early history of this district depends on the history of Palamau district. The district consisted mostly of forest tracts. The territory seldom attracted the attention of invading armies. So the area remained outside the pale of dominating empires. In the past the area was probably in habited by tribal people. It is believed that the three aboriginal races viz the Kharwars, the Oraons and Cheroes practically reigned over this tract. The Cheroes reigned over Garhwa for nearly 200 years from sixteen century to onwards. The most famous among Chero rules was Medani Rai.

1857 Movement
Regarding 1857 Movement it has been observed Historian P.C.Roy Chaudhari - "But the district that was most severely affected was Palamau.The movement at Palamau was of a very different character from Mere Mutiny of the Sepoys.The indigenous population of the district consisting of the Cheroes, Bogtahs and Kharawars had taken to arms.Practically the bulk of the Jagirdars and Zamindars had sided against the Government".At that time Garhwa was the main seat of Movement.Nilambar and Pitambar Sah, both brother and leader of the Kharawar tribes,declared themselves independent and created haboc for Britishers. Many other Jagirdars and people joint them. Later on Nilamber and Pitamber sah were captured by the British army and movement ended with their arrest. Garhwa played also a significant role in freedom movement of the country.


Garhwa at a Glance -


23060’and 24039’ N


83022’ and 84000’ E

Area (in sq. km)

4044 Sq Km

Height from sea level (in feet)

1180 ft

Temperature (in degree centigrade)

Winter(Min 13.0 Max 28.5) and Summer(Min 35.0 Max 47.2)

Rainfall (in mm)

1.335 mm/52.55 inches


Summer(May-jun),Winter(Dec-Feb),Rainy(Jul-Aug) Seasons

Literacy rate

62.18 %

Main Tribes


Main minerals

Dolamite Lime Stone

Main crop


Languages spoken 

Hindi and Oraon

Important Rivers


Nearest Railway Station


Nearest Airport


National Highway passing through District

National Highway 75

Population density


Number of blocks


Number of villages


Population (Total)


Population (male)


Population (female)


Sex ratio


Administrative Division

Palamu division



Year of formation

1st April 1991

Forest Area

1,07,016 hect


Places of tourist interest..

Ketar - Goddess Bhagawati is the deity being worshipped by the people of Ketar, this location is a worthy spot of visit with great architectural values in it.

Radha Krishna MandirRadha Krishna Mandir – The Radha Krishna Mandir is a famous spot of visit in NagarUntari; the fame is because of the golden idols which are worshipped here. It is said that this Idol is of 32 mand of Gold.

Kanjia - Located 70 km from the district headquarters you have a spiritual serene location of Christian belief The Catholic Ashram which dates back to 1937 is a monument to this 21st century

SukhaldariSukhaldari – This is located on the banks of the river Kanahar in Dhuraki, such a beautiful environment of nature and its pleasure is filled in here with a gorgeous waterfalls, nearby there are some more waterfalls such as Parasdiha fall in Bhawanathpur which is 50 km from the district headquarters and Gursandhu fall in Ranka will be a splendid spots of visit indeed.

Raja Pahari - Here you have Lord Shiva temple for worship, this spot is also a blessed landscape by nature and its marvel around.

Saruat Pahar - This is a location on the highest side of the peak where you have the Korba tribe is dwelling. This spot of exuberance has the Hisatu fall which could be the starting point of the Haraiya river form here. Being the highest peak over the state this location is sumptuous on scenic attraction with raw wildlife living in the jungle.

After the Jharkhand state was formed the conditions of the roads in the state improved as compared to Bihar. The road between Garhwa and Nagar Untari is remarkable but the road connecting to Nagar Untari and Bhavnathpur is the worst . The road going through the mines is very bad and it takes hours to travel only 8 kilometers.

Nearest airport is at Varanasi (140 km). Garhwa Railway Station is a major railhead of the Eastern Railways. National Highway 75 has its route through Garhwa.


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