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Gumla district is situated on southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau which forms the southwestern part of the Jharkhand State. Blessed with natural beauty and mineral resources, the district of Gumla is covered by dense forests, hills and rivers. It is a matter of great regret that beinga territory of great historical importance, Gumla has not been brought under historical research map of India.

It is situated in the southwest portion of the Jharkhand State. The District was carved out of Ranchi District on 18th May 1983. Previously it was a sub-division of old Ranchi district. The district lies between 22° 35” to 23° 33” north latitude and 84° 40” to 85° 1” east longitude.

The various legends are in currency regarding its name. For a very long time, Gumla was a meeting center for people from the Jharkhand who flocked here to exchange goods using the barter system, and the place was called Gaw-Mela. The name 'Gumla' is believed to derived from two Hindi words namely, Gaw means cows and Mela meaning fair. The place became known as Gaw-mela, and then the word transformed itself into Gumla. The second legend 'Gau-mela' relates to cattle fair. Cattle fair was weekly held in Gumla town every Tuesday. In rural areas, Nagpuri and Sadri people still call it 'gomila'. Legend says that word 'Gumla' derived from Mundari language, which relates to the occupation of the local Tribes in rice processing work (dhan-kutna).

Gumla area was under Lohadaga province during british rule. In 1843 it was brought under bishunpur province that was further named Ranchi. Actually Ranchi district came into existence in 1899. The territory occupied by the current Gumla district became a sub-division of Ranchi district in 1902. This district was formed on 18 May 1984 by separating the Gumla sub-division from the restwhile Ranchi district, which was then in Bihar state. Sri Jagannath Mishra, then ruling chief minister of Bihar inaugurated the new district and Sri Dwarika Nath Sinha became the 1st deputy commissioner.

Chhotanagpur region was ruled by Kings of Naga dynasty during the medieval period. Baraik Devenandan Singh was the ruler of now existing Gumla region at that time. During the Kolh Rebel of 1931-32, Vakrat Say, a prominent leader in the Gumla region played a prominent role. Ganga Maharaj, who built the famous Kali temple at Sri Ramnagar, also played an active role in Quit India Movement of 1942.

Till 30th April 2001, Gumla district consisted on 2 sub-divisions viz Gumla and Simdega. But after the creation of Jharkhand State, a new district of Simdega was carved out of Gumla district on 30th April, 2001. Now, Gumla district consists of only one sub-division namely Gumla. Total area of the district is about 5327 sq. km. The total population of district as per 2011 census is 1,025,656, out of which 514,730 is male population and 510,926 is female population.There is predominance of tribal people in Gumla district. Since the district has a total of 68% of tribal population, therefore, it comes within scheduled area.

Gumla town is the administrative headquarters of Gumla District. It is also the main town in Gumla district. It is located 137 km south-west of Ranchi. Gumla is considered to be the birth place of the hindu God 'Hanuman'. A temple a few kilometers away from the city of Gumla is dedicated to him and his mother. The district also contains mountains named "Risyamook", which are mentioned in the Ramayana. Gumla had a population of 39,790. Gumla has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 70%. The majority of people (about 80%) speak Oraon, but Hindi is used for communicating with non-Oraon people. Other languages spoken in this region of Jharkhand includes Nagpuri or Sadri, Oriya, and Bihari.Gumla has a rich adiwasi culture and is colourful with the shades of nature. "Chhotanagpur ki raani" Netarhat, a hill station is located in this district.

Netarhat is situated at an altitude of 3671 ft. It is located 156 km west of Ranchi town. Netarhat is covered with thick forests and is an health holiday resort. Netarhat is famous for its glorious sunrises and sunsets during the summer months. It is a plateau covered with thick forests where tourists visit to enjoy the breath taking sunrise and sunset. Netarhat has several places of tourist interests including Magnolia Point (10 km from Netarhat, ideal site for viewing sunset), Upper Ghaghri Water Fall (4 km from Netarhat), Lower Ghaghri Water Fall (10 km from Netarhat), Koel View Point (3 km from Netarhat), Lodh Falls (60 km from Netarhat, the highest waterfall in Jharkhand), Sadani Fall (35 km from Netarhat, called a "Mini Pahalgam")

The terrain of Gumla district is highly undulating and there are existences of many rivers and streams.Major rivers flowing through Gumla district include South Koyel, North Koyel and Shankh River. There are various ributaries to these main rivers on which there are some pictorious waterfalls. The forest covers an area of 1.35 lakh hectares out of the total 5.21 lakh hectares of land in Gumla district.

Gumla district enjoys a good climate characterized by a pleasant cold and temperate weather conditions. Gumla has a sub-tropical climate. Temperature ranges from maximum 40 to 20°C during summer, and minimum 21 to 3°C during winter. The annual rainfall is about 1450 mm. From June to September the rainfall level is about 1,150 mm.


Gumla at a Glance 


22º35" to 23º33" N


84º40" to 85º1" E

Area (in sq. km)


Height from sea level (in feet)

3°C - 40°C

Temperature (in degree centigrade)


Rainfall (in mm)

1450 mm.



Literacy rate


Main Tribes


Main minerals


Main crop


Languages spoken

Oraon, Hindi, Nagpuri or Sadri, Oriya and Bihari

Important Rivers

South Koyel, North Koyel and Shankh River

Nearest Railway Station


Nearest Airport


National Highway passing through District


Population density


Number of blocks


Number of villages


Population (Total)


Population (male)


Population (female)


Sex ratio


Administrative Division




Year of formation

18 May 1984

Forest Area

1,356,00 hect.


Tourist Attractions :

Main tourist attractions in and around Gumla includes Anjan (18 km away from Gumla), Baghmunda (famous for Ajanta caves stone idols), Rajendra, Dewaki, Hapamuni (Famous for Mahamaya temple), Palkot, Nagfeni (famous for the Jagannath temple), Tanginath, Birsa Munda Agro Park etc. The old world charm of the tribal culture remains intact in Gumla, attracting tourists from far and wide.

  1. Anjan - Small village about 18 km away from Gumla. The name of the village has been derived from the name of goddess Anjani, mother of Hanuman. Many objects of archeological importance obtained from this place has been placed at Patna Museum. It is birth place of Hanuman.
  2. Baghmunda - It is famous for religious stone idols (Ajanta caves stone idols).
  3. Rajendra - It has great scenic value. It is surrounded by hills on all sides. It is as beautiful as any other famous hill stations in India. Located 35 km from the Netarhat, this place is filled with picnic spots and natural beauty around; you have a Dak bungalow and a Church as the interesting spots. The Sankh River descends as the Sadani waterfall which fall from 2,600ft height is a popular tourist site.
  4. Dewaki -. This is another location of ancient era that speaks of divinity and rituality here, you have this religious importance located on the banks of the river Ghaghar and a sacred temple of Lord Shiva and Parvathi and the shivling here proclaim to be the oldest of centuries ago. It is a place of religious importance. It is famous for a Shiv-Parvati temple. During Sawan month devotees from every corner visit here to offer water to the Shiva Linga and the place becomes a fair ground
  5. Hapamuni - Famous and ancient village Mahamaya temple that is the identity of this village.
  6. Palkot - This place is to be believed as an ancient spot that locates in the early epics Ramayana’. It is said that PAMPAPUR is today’s Palkot. Anjan is a place said to be where Hanuman was born, the Ramrekha dham  is said to be the location where Rama and Sita sojourned a while during their exile in wilderness, Umra a place similar to Kishkindha are the proofs of history and adds antique values to this town and its neighourhood.
    The Malmalpur and Shitalpur caves are the tourist attractions here they are said to be very cold inside indeed to the minus degree celisus. The other caves and rock cut places are Pandulata , Ghorlata, aamotongri, Baghlata, Marialatha, Munikandra, the cave of Sevari, Bengpat, budhamaadeve and Navratnamunda are the other places of interest which carries the value as a part of land named in the  epic Ramayana. The nearby hill resort is Plakot hills and Gobarsilli rocks exist as a picnic spot. During the year 1990 this region was announced as a wildlife sanctuary , this spot is spread over an area of 184 sq.km situated about 21 km south of Gumla this wildlife region includes fauna like leopards and  wild bears, the charm of nature and beauty is complete here in this location. Palkot a small town of wonderland with such credits is situated towards south on the Highway 23 between Gulma and Kolebria. Nature, nature , nature everywhere right from the epic ages to the  modern, an unfading location on earth as ever green , for men may come and men may go but the nature and its beauty are the same to our ancestor , to our legends, to our inventors, to us and to the generation next
  7. Nagfeni - It is famous for the Jagannath temple and there is a big rock in the shape of snake 'Nag'. It has its own natural beauty.
  8. Tanginath
  9. Birsa Munda Agro Park
  10. Rakastongri - This is another location that exposes the olden days epics are real, it is said that in this place Bali killed the diabolic Dundubhi as per the epic story line… to believe it in real you have some traces of blood stain and arrows of olden days exist at the location of the foot of Pampapur Mountain.
  11. Basudeokona - This spot is famous for its religious stone idols which exhibit talented sculptors who would have lived in here near Raidih.
  12. Nagar - The name of this region is Chhota Nagpur which is originated from the Nagwanshi King, the younger child of the king who was selected by the people ( Chhota means small and Nag means the dynasty).therefore this region is shortened by name as Nagar, this is located in Sisai block a fort of Nagbansi kings. Nearby you have the Lord Shiva temple at Banpur.
  13. Panch Pandava Pahar - This hilly region is the talk of the town which says that this piece of land has great values of epic ages, it is said that it was here when Pancha pandavas spent time amidst these group of five hills during their period of exile into the wilderness. The erstwhile happenings are the real good memories which make us wide open our eyes in wonder.
  14. Tanginath - This spot contains history beyond beliefs, the location here censuses to the dates of 7th century on earth, the famous architectural works expresses the transformation of civilization from ancient history to medieval periods. Located to a hillock of about 300ft. high near to Dumri this spot consist of remarkable features of stone images and idol Gods and Goddesses such as Vishnu, Durga, hundreds of Shivlings , a Shiva temple , Sun Temple, Surya Kund made of bricks and the great Trishul ( trident) buried underground are the inquisitive information here situated 50 km from the district headquarters.
  15. Mahadev Kona - An ancient location that speaks of years ago even before the Mahabarat periods, you have a numerous Shivlings and Shiva temples which are perished out of ages, reveals mans inhabitance to these lands very long ago in this earth which are not accounted. The other major visiting spot here is the ancient temple of Durga Mandir at Brahmin Tola, Murhar Chandi Temple, Murhar pahar and Murhar Manda cave. The Bhutkuria Tongri caves, Jalkund are the places that reveal about the queen Lukpail and the ruins of the old palaces here.
  16. Aamtoli - The old shiva temple is a famous location here near Sarita village, near to it you have Nagfeni which is situated between Gumla and Sisai. The jagarnath temple and a big rock resembles the shape of a nag (snake) is the tourist attraction here.
  17. Ghaghara - This place is located 30 km from the district headquarters and by 12 km you have the village of Hapamuni where you have the remains of ancient temple found here. It is said that during the period of the 22nd king Gajhat ray of Naga Dynasty have built this temple of Mahamaya. When the days passed by these places have been ruined during the fight between kolh against Diku the two tribal of this region.
  18. Basiya - Located 60 km from the district headquarters you have a nice locale to picnic with green woods and Bhaghmunda waterfalls in it, this exquisite place is situated 3 km from Basiya , the koel river is the water resource that falls in this cascade. Nearby to this spot you have the ancient Jagannath temple as a holistic location to attain divinty.
  19. Taraloya Waterfalls - This wonderful scenic waterfall location is situated at a distance of 30 km from south of Raidih, a beautiful location for celebrative occasions come true with natural bliss here.

How to get there

This district is well connected with roadways and railways to link to the neighbouring places of the country, the nearest airport will be Ranchi.


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