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Palamu

Palamu Fort

The district of Palamu lies between 23°50' and 24°8' north latitude and between 83°55' and 84°30' east longitude. It is bordered on the north by Son and Bihar rivers, on the east by the Chatra and Hazaribagh districts, on the south by Latehar District and on the west by Garhwa District. A great proportion of Palamu consists of hills covered with jungle. The soil in many parts is strongly impregnated with iron. Palamu is well known for rich mineral resources.

Daltonganj, situated on the North Koel river, is the district headquarters of Palamu. Daltonganj is named after Colonel Dalton, Commissioner of Chhota Nagpur in 1861. The distance between Daltonganj and Ranchi is about 165 Km.

The Origin of the name Palamu is a matter of different opinions. According to some, it is derived from the Hindi word palana means “a place of refuse”. Another suggestions is that the name is combination of Pala meaning “ forst” and mu means “dead “, making it "dead due to frost". It may be due to the extreme winter temperatures.

The Palamu district is home to the famous 'Palamau National Park' known for its wild life. The park is spread over a core area of 250 square kilometers. The area is rich in flora and fauna but also prone to severe droughts. The Palamau National Park was brought under Project Tiger in the year 1973 and is among the original tiger reserves of India. Sal and bamboo are the main vegetation. The tourists can drive through dense patches of sal and bamboo in the park. The wildlife sanctuary can be reached by train from Daltonganj (25km) or by air from Ranchi (180km).

Palamu fort is also an important spot tourists must see. Most interesting of all is the massive and beautifully carved stone gate. In the new fort the 'Nagpuri gate' is of great beauty. It is said to have been imported of great expense by Medni Roy, the greatest of the Rajas of "Palamau", after he had sacked the place of the Maharaja of Chhotanagpur. The Auranga river flows close by. There are high hills and dense jungles all around.

The principals rivers flowing through Palamu district are Koel and its tributaries, the Auranga and the Amanat. The climate of Palamu varies can be divided in to three main seasons. The cold seasons from November to March, the hot season from March to May and the monsoon season from June to September. Temperature varies from 47°C to 38° C during the summer month while in the monsoon months it is only 6° C to 8° C.

Blocks in Palamu District are Bishrampur, Chainpur, Chatarpur, Daltanganj, Hariharganj, Hussainabad, Lesliganj, Manatu, Pandu, Panki, Patan, Satbarwa and Haidernagar. The major tourist destinations include Palamu Tiger Reserve, Amjharia, Betla Forest, Daltonganj, Dundu, Gulgulpat, Kanti Falls, Kechki, Kulka, Loda Falls, Palamau Fort etc.

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HISTORY

Early History
The early history of Palamu is not authentic but we have legends about it. It is, however certain that kharwars, oraons and cheros, the three aboriginal races practically ruled over the tract. The kharwars claim to be suryavanshi Kshatriyas. They trace their decent from Ajanagara or Ayodhya. Karusa was the sixth son of Manu Vaivasata and he was assigned the eastern territory. The descendants of Karusa were called Karusas who subsequently came to be known as Karwars or kharwars. According to tradition they were the rulers of Rohtasgarh. The kharawars point to the days of the Pratapadhaval, one of the line of chiefs who ruled there in the twelfth century A.D., during the time of their greatest prosperity.

The cheros have been spoken in very high terms in the Aitareya Aranyaka along with the Vangas and Magadhas. They did not observe the Vedic sacrifices and still they are termed as revered cheros ‘cheropadas. There is not much evidence to show that the Cheros came to this region from Kumaun as some think.

The Mandas claim decent from Karusas. The Ramayana records their flight to the south. Some say that these aboriginals played the band at the time of Rama’s coronation at Ayodhya and they were assigned this region in lieu of their meritorious services. The Pandawas killed Jarasandha – an ally of the Mand . Naturally in the Mahabharat war the Mandas sided with the kauravas and were in the army of Bhisma. Sanjaya says that on the left wing of Bhisma are the Karusas with the Mandas, Vikunja and Kundivarsa Satyiki compares the Mandas with the demons and boasts that he would put an end them just as Indra ended the demons . Arjuna is said to have married a Naga princess from this region and Babhruvahana was born of this lady.

MEDINI RAY (1662-1674)
Among the kings who ruled palamu Medini ray was the most famous one.Medini ray, the just, ruled for thirteen years from 1662 to 1674. This raja is, by far the most famous in the whole Chero line. He extended his sway over South Gaya and large parts of Hazaribagh and Surguja. He invaded and defeated the Maharaja of Chhotanagpur in his capital city of Doisa, now called Navaratragarh, 33 miles from Ranchi. With its spoils, he built on of the Palamau Forts (the lower fort) near modern Satberwa, which played so important a part in the subsequent history of the district. Medini ray’s memory has survived more for his justice than for his conquests. A popular Hindi couplet is even now current that “in the reign of Raja Medini Ray, no house was with out a churner and butter”. This must be attributed to the widely extended economic prosperity during his reign.

It is said he moved in disguise from house to house to see if any one was with out a cow or a buffalo. The wanting ones were given at least one on behalf of Raja Medini. He levied no tax on income. Once he thought of exacting at least a shell from each headman as his tribute. Each headman presented him a gold shell instead as he had not demanded anything before. It is a popular story that this was due to the good influence of his queen who bathed on the lotus in the pond and the lotus did not sink due to her sweetness. He loved his subjects as his own children. There was complete peace and prosperity during his reign. There are many stories about his kindness and good rule.

Climate -
The climate of this Districts is on the whale dry and bracing .The year can be divided in to three main seasons. The cold seasons from November to March, the hot season from March to May and the monsoon season from June to September, October is a transitional month between monsoon and winter seasons.

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Palamu - At a Glance

Latitude

 23°50′ and 24°8′ north

Longitude

83°55′ and 84°30′ east

Area (in sq. km)

 5043.8 km²

Height from sea level (in feet)

 

Temperature (in degree centigrade)

 

Rainfall (in mm)

1,335 mms. (52.55 inches)

Climate

 

Literacy rate

65.5%

Main Tribes

 

Main minerals

 

Main crop

 

Languages spoken

 Asuri

Important Rivers

Koil and its tributaries, the Auranga and the Amanat

Nearest Railway Station

 

Nearest Airport

ranchi

National Highway passing through District

National Highway 75, National Highway 98, National Highway 99

Population density

381

Number of blocks

13

Number of villages

 

Population (Total)

1,936,319

Population (male)

1,003,876

Population (female)

932,443

Sex ratio

929

Administrative division

Palamu

Headquarters

Daltonganj

Year of  Formation

 

Forest Area

2,146 sqr. miles

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TOURISM

water fallWith the opening of Communication through forests and the availability of a series of beautiful camping sites and place on of interest and beauty, Palamau Division is ideal for the development of tourism particularly for the motorists and the hikers. As a matter of fact it is possible probably to exploit the wonderful facility of tourism by organizing visits of tourism tourists keen to shot wild life by gun of camera some of the forest bungalows namely Neterhat, Kechaki, Mahuamilan, Belta, etc., Offer very good facilities for stay Neterhat is one of the most famous beauty spots in Jharkhand. Presently Neterhat and National Park Betla are situated in the newly created Districts Latehar there are also a number of excellent camping sites.There are a series of water falls in this Districts which are well worth a visit.

RIVERS

riverThe general line of drainpipe is from south to north towards the SON, which forms parts of the northern boundary of the districts .The principals rivers are Koel and its tributaries, the Auranga and the Amanat. There are also last of smaller streams, most of which are mere mountain torrents which rock–strewn beds. The Koel Auranga and Amanat are similar in this respect for their upper reaches are characterized by high banks Generally rugged and occasionally precipitous with a rapid stream dashing over boulders and shingle or gliding. Calmly, except in time of spate, in shadow parts terminated by rocky barriers. Further north these rivers have deep sandy beds, into which the water sinks out of sight in the hot weather, percolating through the soft sand. Until some outcrop of rock arrests its course and forces it to the surface.

Netarhat

netar hatA plateau, four miles long and two and a half miles broad. It is in the extreme of the district, the highest point of which is 3,800 feet above the sea level. It is in Mahuadanr police station and is 96 miles west of Ranchi across seven hills. This is the highest point on the plateau of Chhotanagpur. Netarhat is a place of peculiar charm which has a laid its spell on many casual visitors. The stillness of the jungle and the cool and refreshing air brings relief from the dust and heat of the plains. Netarhat has a game sanctuary amidst pine forest the bestow singular arboreal interest in this part. Some time back it used to be the permanent summer station of the Governor.

sun riseIn November,1954 a public school was started at this place by the state Government, admission to which is received merit alone. The admission fees are charged according to the parents income. The admission age is 10 - 12 years and the education is imparted for preparing the boys for higher secondary examination, Jamalpur Railway Engineering and various other technical and vocation pursuits. The medium of instruction is Hindi but English and Sanskrit are also taught from the beginning to secure a satisfactory standard. A number of top Bureocrats and Tecnocrats are the product of this august institutions.
The temperature of Netarhat is cooler than Ranchi all the year on round. It can be said that this place is the coolest in the whole of Jharkhand State. The place has also been provided with an Agricultural Farm. There are inspection bungalows and rest houses.

sunsetThe plateau of Netarhat in Palamu district is comparatively unknown to the tourists from outside although it is one of the rare beauty spots which is capable of great development. About a century back, it is understood, there was a military camp at Netarhat. The camp had to close down because sufficient good water was not available. It was left to Sir Edward Gait, Lt. Governor of Bihar and Orissa to give a great Importance to the plateau. Sir Edward and after him many of the Bihar and Orissa and later Bihar Governors use to spend a part of the summer exodus at Netarhat . Netarhat although situated in Palamau District is more easily accessible from Ranchi, the summer head quarter of the Old Bihar Govt. it is at a distance of 96 miles from Ranchi, the last 12 miles of which commencing from Banari runs through the hilly section and is typical of any of the other hill stations. There is an excellent all weather road of morum which is capable of widening at some places. The cars can pass conveniently.

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cloudsSir Edward loved the spot, the natural beauty, the Sal forests and the panoramic view of ranges of hills below. He visualized that this plateau of about 12 square miles could well be developed into a beautiful hill station without the disadvantages of usual dampness and heavy rains of higher attitude. He also loved the aboriginal tribes namely the Birhors and Brijias. Some Birhores are still seen living in small leaf huts with an opening through which one could crawl in and frequently shifting their camps to jungle patches where there more of edible fruits, roots and monkeys to catch and eat. The Birjias have now been reduced to a total population of a few hundreds only in Palamau district .the only changes that have come over the Birjias is that they are no more nomadic but they still not have taken to cultivation.

The excellent pasturage available induced the Government to start a stud-buffalo from 40 years back but this had to wind up because of maleria and want of good water. Fortunately maleria control measures have alone way to make the place mosquito free but the water problem is still remains. Steps are how ever being taken to ensure to better water supply.

The base of the plateau is formed of massive felspathic granite and laterite. The boulders of trap are within 180 feet of the summit. There are stretches of Sal with natural bamboo groves and wild bisons occasionally are found grazing. At one time there was an attempt to grow tea and coffee on the plateau.

natureThe entire plateau is owned by the Old Bihar Government. At present their are no private houses on the plateau. The best building is of course the Governors Chalet and then comes Palamau forests rest bungalows. There are four other Public works Department bungalows and a Palamau District Board Bungalows These are available for the tourists but prior reservation from the Deputy Commissioner of Palamu or the Chairman of the District Board, Palamau is desirable. The Palamu District Board bungalow has the best situation as it over looks several ranges of hills and the winding Koil river below. There are many Hotels are available for tourists.

Netarhat has a wonderful climate and in the July and August it does not become moist. In summer Netarhat has a very cool climate. The plateau is ringed by forest and the rainfall usually does not exceed 60 inches per year. There are patches of pines and cypresses grown by the Forest Department and both the species have taken to the soil very kindly. Apples and peaches are grown but the fruits are not very big. English vegetables could easily be grown. The place has now been freed from malaria.

There are a number of flowering trees particularly of Bauhinia and Cassia species. Season flowers could be grown throughout the year. It has been held the flowering trees of different species could be very well grown on the plateau which will ensure a feast of flowers throughout the year.

highest water fallThere are bus services both from Ranchi and Daltonganj to Netarhat. The development of Netarhat will open the neighbouring Chhechhari valley and other hill tops such as Jamirapat (3,747 feet above sea level ) and Gulgupat (3,819 feet above sea level ). Jharkhand’s second highest fall, the Burhaghagh with a sheer drops of 466 feet is also near Netarhat but at present accessible only to the hiker. Netarhat offers plenty of big game shooting with permission from the Forest Department. Tigers are common in certain sections. With the development of Netarhat which has been taken up, it will have great attraction to the general tourists, hiker, shikari and anthropologists.

There is one important beauty spot in Netarhat. The sight of the sunrise near the Palamu dak bungalow and sunset at Mangolia point about six miles from the Public school. It is advisable that tourist must see the SUNRISE and SUNSET in Neterhat. Presentaly Neterhat is situated in new created district LATEHAR from PALAMU.

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Shahpur
shahpur palaceOpposite Daltonganj on the west bank of the Koel is the village SHAHPUR in which Gopal Rai, the Raja of Palamu built a palace in the end of the 18th century. Shahpur stands on a high tract of land and the ruined place, the white temple and the masonry building present a picturesque view from Daltonganj. A nearer view of the palace is disappointing for what looks in the distance like an imposing edifice is seen to be half- finished building of little architectural importance.


Palamu
kingPalamau on the Auranga river, 20 miles south-east of Daltonganj as the crow flies, from which the district takes its name is for historian and archaeologist the most interesting place in the district, for it was for many years the seat of the Chero chiefs and it contains the ruins of the two great forts built by them, the capture of which by Mughals and later by the British resulted in the collapse of the Chero resistance, the forts lie within the reserved forests and in order to preserve them the jungle has to be cut back at intervals .they are a favourite haunt of tigers, whose pug marks may nearly always be seen in and around the fort.The walls which are in preservation are about 5 feet in thickness and those of the old fort bear marks of cannon balls and bullets in many places.

In the new fort the Nagpuri gate is of great beauty. It is said to have been imported of great expense by Medni Roy, the greatest of the Rajas of “Palamau”, after he had sacked the place of the Maharaja of Chhotanagpur ; but the side of the fort on which it was erected was declared to be unlucky, and the entrance was bricked up, the carving being left where it was. The gate has now been opened and some of the adjoining masonry has been demolished in order to preserve it. The following account is taken from the Report of the Archeological Survey, Bengal Circle in 1903-1904 : “ There are two forts at Palamau, inside the jungle, close to each other. They are distinguished by the name of Purana Kila and Naya Kila, although the both appear to be of about the same age.

The style of the walls and buildings so closely resembles that at Rohtashgarh and Shergarh that both forts may safely be put down at the same time, viz., the beginning of Mughal period. The old fort is of regular shape, about one mile in circumference. The ground upon which it stands rises in terraces, the higher part is divided from the lower one by a cross wall. The walls are in places of considerable thickness, about 8’ the path way on top between the battlements measuring 5’- 6”. In other places they are thinner. The four gates are strongly fortified with inner and outer courts and provided with watch towers. The outer battlements of the walls are loop-holed. Inside are the remains of for two-storied houses and mosque with three domes. The inner cross wall has one gate, in front of which is a deep well cut out of the rocks with a vaulted tunnel leading down to it. The walls are built of stones and concrete, like those at Rohtashgarh and Shergarh.

The houses are plastered over and remains of paintings and stucco ornamentation are seen here and there,. In all these respects, the buildings closely agree with those in the other hill forts, already referred to. I observed one statue of Buddha close to the eastern gate and another broken Hindu or Buddhist idol, but no temple was found by me.The new fort is built around the slopes of a conical hill. There are two lines of walls. Each making up a square. The inner line clusters around the peak of the hill ; the outer line is somewhat lower down. The walls are of the same kind as in the old fort.

forestThe outer walls are of considerable breadth, the passage along the roof between the battlements measuring 14’ and the total breadth amounting to 18’.there are no separate building inside the enclosure, but the walls have galleries, open to the interior, sometimes of several stories. The most interesting object is fine stone-carved window about 15’high. There is nothing to match this either at Rohtasgarh or Shergarh. The carving is distinctly of the Mughal type. Another similar window close to it is broken and some wall near it also have fallen down and now block up the passage so that it is difficult to get a view of this excellent piece of carving”. The above note still holds good.

Palamau is now often mistaken as Palamau District. It may be mentioned here that the East India Gazetteer by Walter Hamilton (1815) has the following description lf this district:--“A hilly and jungly district in the province of Jharkhand, situated between the 23rd and 25th degrees of north latitude. This is one of the least cultivated and most thinly inhabited territories in the Company’s dominions, a great proportion of the land consisting of hills covered with jungle. The soil in many parts is strongly impregnated with iron.

Betla

belta deerBetla is situated at 25 km. away from Daltonganj, 70 km. from Latehar and 170 km. From Ranchi. It is well connected by Rail and Road. The nearest airport is Ranchi which is about 180 km. From Daltonganj and 195 km. From Betla and patna air port is about 250 kms. From Betla, the tourist headquarter of the Palamu Tiger Reserve. Daltonganj and Barwadih is an important Railway station where all trains have stoppage. Betla is most important tourist place of jharkhand having luxiuriant Sal and miscellaneous trees and bamboo forests. 226 sq. km. Of Betla forest has been declared as Betla National Park and 753 sq. km. Of forest has been declared asPalamu Sanctuary. The forest starts from Kechki and extended up to Neterhat. The forest has 970 species of identified plants, 174 species of birds, 39 species of Mammals, 180 species of Medicinal plants, besides reptiles and other species.

tree houseIt is proposed to create a tourist complex at Barwadih. It has police station, post office, Market, Health facilities and block Headquarter.

The main wild animals found are:-Tiger, Leopard, Elephant, India Gaur (Bison), Chitalor, Sambher, wild boar and sloth bear.

There are accommodation available in forest tourist cottages, Forest Rest House, Tourism deptt. Hotel and private hotels having well furnished facilities. Private jeeps, guides are available to go around the area. There are two elephants are available at Betla for tourist to get around the reserve to see the wild animals. Rupees 40/- per trip ( for two hours) for 4 persons are being charged. This is the main attraction for tourist.

palamu tigerPalamu Tiger Reserve is very rich in biodiversity and various wild life species have been included in Red data book of the I.U.C.N. (International union for Conservation of nature and neutral resources) and the appendices of C.I.T.E.S. (Convention on International trade in Endangered species of flora and fauna).



Accommodation:-

For accommodation of tourists the following rest houses, tourists lodges and dormitories are available:-

Sl.No.

Location

Accommodation Available

Rate (Rs/day)

No. Of suite/Room

No. of Beds

1

Betla

Forest Rest House No. 1

50/-per room

2

4

2

Betla

Forest Rest House (Main)

50/-per room

2

4

3

Betla

Tourist lodge

100/- per room

4

8

4

Betla

Janta lodge

45/-per lodge

5

15

5

Betla

Dormatry

120/-

1

15

6

Kerh

Forest Rest House

50/- per room

2

4

7

Kerh

Tourist Cottage

60/- per room

2

4

8

Kerh

Dormatry

75/-

1

40

9

Maromar

Forest rest House

50/- per room

2

4

10

Maromar

Tree House

160/-

2

4

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Besides there is Jharkhand State Tourism Devlopment Hotel ( Van Vihar) having 2 A.C. rooms, 1 Double bedded tree house, 7 deluxe rooms, 16 economy rooms, 4 three bedded Dormatry, 1 eight bedded dormatry, 2 five bedded dormatry and two other private hotels Debjani & Naihar , having 16 & 7 rooms respectively besides 2 dormatry of 10 bed & 5 bed capacity respectively.

Regulations within the Reserve :-

Following regulations are practiced :-

1. No entry after sunset & before sunrise. Night driving is prohibited in the reserve.

2. Pets, transistors, tape-recorder, stereos are not permitted.

3. No arms and ammunitions are allowed.

4. Carelessly throwing & leaving trash litter are strictly prohibited.

5. Candling fire in the forest is prohibited.

6. Fast driving (> 20 km. Per hour) & blowing of horn is strictly prohibited.

7. Shouting, teasing or chasing of animals are prohibited.

8. Hunting and fishing are strictly prohibited.

9. Staying in rest house without reservation are prohibited.

10. Use of flash camera to take a snap of wild animals are not allowed.

Interpretation & Conservation Education :- There is one Nature Interpretation Center (NIC), at Betla. This is an excellent creation, consists of reception, displays of models, Museum, Library and auditorium. This NIC remains open for the visitors daily from 10.00 am to 5.00 pm. Three staffs are deputed to take care of tourists & NIC. Two visitor’s book(1 VIP and 1 general) are maintained in NIC to get the visitor’s feed back & to access the no. of visitors. 16 mm films and videos film on wild life are also shown in the auditorium.

PALAMU FORT

palamu fortFrom the Alamgirnama we learn that the Northern frontier of Palamau was only 50 miles from Patana the seat of the Chero Raja was something of a city. It was fairly well populated with many bazaars and protected by two strong Forts, one on the summit of neighbouring hill, the other on the plain. There are two extensive forts of bricks and stone which are worth a visit. The walls, which are in fair preservation, are about 5 feet in thickness, and that the old fort bears marks of canon balls and bullets in many places . The gate leading to the old fort, the court room, and temple and Zanana quarters of the Raja as also the two deep but silted up wells in the old fort are very interesting.

Most interesting of all is the massive and beautifully carved stone gate ‘The Nagpuri gate’in the new fort and a round room, in which a well had been sunk to provide a supply of drinking water incase of a siege.The Auranga river flows close by. There are high hills and dense jungles all around. On the frontier, there were three great Forts, viz, Kothi,Kunda and Devagan , and it was against these that Daud khan proceeded to march.

He left Patana with a strong force on April 3, 1660. He reached Kothi, 6 miles south of Imamganj in the south of Gaya district on May 5, only to find that enemy had abandoned it. He than moved on to Kunda, a strong hill fort, 14 miles south-south east, but this short distance took his army just a month to traverse. This shows how the area was covered with dense forests and wild animals. But Doud khan determined to advance methodically and to secure a safe line of communication. He set his army to clear the jungle and make a road. On June 3, he reached Kunda and found that this fort also had been in evacuated. He razed the fort to the ground and than he camped his army, as further advanced was prevented by the approach of to rains. he fortified the encampments being built at short distances between Kothi and Kunda in each of which he placed a garrison.

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On October 25, at the end of the rains, the army 6,400 strong, resumed its march,but the progress was very slow owing to the very cautious tactics of Daud khan. A large body of pioneers was sent ahead to clear the forest and to make a road. Out posts were established along the line of March. Every evening entrenchment were thrown up round the camp to prevent surprise attacks at night. In nine day the army had only advanced twenty mile, reaching Lohersi near Amanat river on November 3. Here some time was spent in fruitless negotiations but by December 9, Daud khan had penetrated within two miles of Palamu. The cheros, advancing from the forts , threw up entrenchments and prepared to make a final stand.

Daud khan then offered the Chero Raja the final terms of the Emperor, viz. that he should submit, embrace Islam and hold his state as a tributary chief. Before a reply was received one of Daud khan’s captains unable suppress the eagerness of his soldiers attacked the enemy’s outworks on December 17.Daud Khan, hearing of the engagement, pushed forward with the rest of his force, threw up entrenchments within the enemys fire, and commenced a bombard ment, which lasted till sunset and put an end to the fighting. During the night, the cheros brought two large canons from the fort, and mounting them on their bastions completely dominated Daud Khans trenches which were on a lower level. The Muslims were equal to the emergency. They spotted a hill overlooking enemys position and dragged their guns up the hill opened fire and quickly silenced the enemr.

The fighting had now lasted three days and the Cheros unable to hold their position, retreated to the banks of the river and proceeded to erect breastworks along the line of hills running parallel to them and to barricade the passes. Daud Khan following the same plan of clearing the country as he advanced, spent two or three days in felling the forest which intervened between him and the enemy, and then ordered a general advance. After a stubborn fight of Six hours duration the Cheros fled into the fort.

It had been Daud’s original plan to occupy the trenches dug by the enemy, and commence a siege. But the Muslim soldiers could not check their fury, and rushing to the river they crossed it and attacked the fortifications which surrounded the town at foot of the fort. The Cheros withdrew to the higher fort, where the Raja, who had sent his whole family and valuables away to the jungles, continued the defence. The imperialists, in the meantime, had taken the lower fortifications and stood before the gate of the upper fort, where the fight raged, till the first watch of the evening. Half a watch later, the Raja fled to the jungle, whole fort was occupied by Daud’s army .The town was cleared of the Hindus, their temples were destroyed and the prayer for Allah’s glory filled the place.

The capture of the forts of Palamau in practically ended the struggle. The Cheros succeed in maintaining the fort of Devgan for some time longer. But they were quickly expelled by a force sent by Daud khan. The Muslim conquest was complete. Daud khan remained for some time fortifying several strong holds and arranging for the administration of the country and then returned to Patna, leaving Palamu in charge of Mankali khan a muslim Fauzdar. The letter was removed in 1666. Palamau was then placed under the direct control of the Viceroy of Bihar, Lasker khan, the new Bihar Governor. Thus since 1666 came under the direct control of the Viceroy of the Emperor in Bihar. Muslim historians have made an error in supposing that these invasions were in the time of Pratap Ray Instead of Anant Ray. Bradley –Birt also followed the foot steps of the Muslim historians, as he had also mentioned Pratap Ray and not Anant Ray. The error was due to the fact that Pratap Ray took the leading part in opposing the imperial forces and in offering the Peshkash (tribute). During the Muslim rule was there was practically no interference. There were only some occasional risings.

Bhupal Ray came to the throne in 1661 only for four months. Many historians have missed him. Nothing untoward appears to have occurred during his short reign.

Kund waterfalls - This is said to be the smallest waterfall of the region, this spot is located near Ghaghra village, and the attraction of this falls will be that the water cascades down from the height of 30 ft.

Suga Bandh Waterfalls - This is situated near Baresand which is closely located near the Palamu Tiger reserve at a distance of 60km from Betla. The nearby waterfall spots are Mirchaiya and Lodh.

Barwadih - This is a hot water spring region named as Tataha Pani will be a tourist attraction, the other places of tourist interest are Amjharia, Betla Forest, Dundu, Gulgupat, Kanti Falls, Kechki, Kulka , Lodafalls, Netarhat and Palamau Fort.

How to get there - The district is well connected by road and rail. The nearest airport is Ranchi.

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