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Ranchi

Ranchi Railway Station

Ranchi district is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state in eastern India. Ranchi city, the capital of Jharkhand state is the district headquarters. It is one of the oldest districts in Jharkhand. Ranchi is also called as city of Water falls and lakes. Earlier the name of the district was Lohardaga. The old district had come into existence after the creation of the non-regulation South – West frontier as a result of the Kol rising in 1831-32. The name of the district was changed in 1899 from Lohardaga to Ranchi after the name of a small village now comprised within the headquarters station. Subarnarekha river flows by the side of the city. The city as well as its immediate hinterland is endowed with several scenic spots.

The district has 7 Vidhan Sabha constituencies, namely, Tamar, Silli, Khijri, Ranchi, Hatia, Kanke, and Mandar. Silli, Khijri, Ranchi, Hatia and Kanke are part of Ranchi Lok Sabha constituency.

History
The geographical area currently comprising the district of Ranchi was ruled by the Kshatriya rulers named hanimukut and was in the direct control of the kings of the epic period of the Mahabharata such as Jarasandh, the king of Rajgir. However Lord Krishnawas believed to have a loose control over the territory. Magadha Empire exercised indirect control over the territory, which lasted until the reign of the Ashoka. Kalinga rulers are believed to have ravaged the region during their expeditions to Rajgir and Pataliputra. Armies of Samudra Gupta passed through the region on their expedition to Deccan. After the decline of the Guptas, Phanimukut established the Kingdom of Chhotanagpur. The legendary Phanimukut, which literally means the crown of the cobra, was found by the side of a cobra, and grew to be an industrious king, and founded the Nag Dynasty, which ruled Ranchi district and a larger part of Chota Nagpur Plateau as a sovereign king for almost next 1000 years. With the expansion of the Mughal Empire, the sovereign status of the Nag Dynasty was technically affected, but they continued to rule and administer independently until the advent of the East India Company. During the period of the British Raj, adivasis and the local population of other ethnic backgrounds of Ranchi and other regions currently comprising the State of Jharkhand continued to oppose the subjugation by the British, and the region witnessed a number of uprisings and revolts. The district is currently a part of the Red Corridor.

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Climate
Ranchi has a salubrious climate. Temperature ranges from maximum 37 to 20 °C during summer, and maximum 22 to 4 °C during winter. The annual rainfall is about 1530 mm.

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Ranchi at a Glance 

Latitude

23.23 N

Longitude

85.23 E

Area (in sq. km)

7574.17(2,924 sq mi)

Height from sea level (in feet)

2140 ft

Temperature (in degree centigrade)

Winter(Min 3 Max 22.9) and Summer(Min 20.6 Max 37)

Rainfall (in mm)

1530 Annual

Climate

Summer, Winter and Rainy Seasons

Literacy rate

77.13 %

Main Tribes

Munda, Oraon, Lohra

Main minerals

Lime Stone, Coal, asbestos and ornamental stones etc.

Main crop

Rice, Millets, Pulses and oil seeds.

Languages spoken

Hindi, Nagpuri,Oraon,Mundari and Kurmali

Important Rivers

Subarnarekha, South Koel and Sankh

Nearest Railway Station

Ranchi

Nearest Airport

Ranchi

National Highway passing through District

NH-33 and NH-23

Population density

557 per Sq.Km

Area in acers

1873635.75

Number of blocks

20

Number of villages

2076

Population (Total)

2912022

Population (male)

1493376

Population (female)

1418646

Sex ratio

950

Administrative division

South Chotanagpur division

Headquarters

Ranchi

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Mode of Conveyance


Railways

Ranchi is well connected with major cities of India via Rail routes and most profitable station in South Eastern Railways.Ranchi Railway Station with station code RNC is main station of Ranchi.16 trains starts, 16 trains ends and 20 trains passes from Ranchi Railway station. It is well connected with metro and major cities of India like Bilaspur, New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, Bhubaneswar, Bangalore, Vishakhapatnam, Vijaywada, Hyderabad, Guwahati, Patna, Amritsar, Nagpur, Gorakhpur, Pune etc.

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Airways

Birsa Munda Airport of Ranchi has direct flights from Patna, Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. Few major airlines like Kingfisher Airlines, Air India, Jet Lite, GoAir, serves this purpose.A new integrated terminal is being build in existing old airport to accommodate the continuously growing air traffic volume from the city.The new terminal has a capacity of approx 500 domestic and 200 international passengers.The renovation of the airport is also carried out as it will be shortly upgraded to international status.The parking capacity of the airport is also being boosted.All major technical facilities and facilities arec also being provided for proper flight operations during all time of the day and in all seasons. Birsa Munda airport will soon be added to the list of international airports. The Airports Authority of India (AAI) has approved a Rs 138 crore revamp plan to upgrade the airport, which includes building of an international terminal.

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Roadways

NH 33 and NH 23 passes through Ranchi. Roads connecting major cities are providing movement for passenger and freight traffic. Buses of the Jharkhand State Road Transport Corporation and private buses ply regularly to connect Ranchi to the other parts of Jharkhand. Also, Bihar State Road Transport Corporation run regularly for major cities (Patna, Gaya etc ) of Bihar. Regular bus services are there to Kolkata and other towns of neighboring states. Private buses also ply regularly to Jamshedpur, Siwan, Begusarai, Rourkela, Dumka, Varanasi, Khagaul, Hajipur, Patna and Kolkata.A new ring road is under construction around the city to reduce the growing traffic overlod on the city roads.All major NH and other roads are being widened to 6 lanes or 8 lanes. Bulk of the public transport constitute of autorickshaw and cycle rickshaw.A new city bus service under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission has also started to meet the demands of public transport. The Jharkhand Tourism Development Corporation (JTDC) was given the responsibility of running the buses in Ranchi.

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Tourist spots in Ranchi

Rock garden & Kanke dam(Gonda hills)
Hundru Fall
Jonha Fall
Panchgagh Fall
Dassam Fall
Hirni Fall
Sita Fall
Pahari Mandir(Ranchi Hill)

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Ranchi Rock GardenGonda Hill and Rock Garden : is situated   at a distace of about 4 kms from Ranchi town on Ranchi Kanke Road . Rock garden is  carved out of the rocks of Gonda Hill. At the base of the Hill is Kanke dam. The Rock Garden is a picturesque picnic spot. Next to picturesque Kanke Dam, this spot has been developed into an artificial garden, complete with waterfalls and sculptures, to attract tourists. The rock garden is awesome in its appearance, striking a balance between the creativity of modern and ancient man. It has tried to resemble its design to the Rock Garden of Jaipur. There is a Jhula, made of Iron rod has only two pole. There are several ridiculous statue made of stone. This has become very popular among teens.

Machli Ghar : There is a fish aquarium in front of Governor House. It has many species of  fishes.

Muta Crocodile breeding centre :  is situated at a distance of 23 km from Ranchi on Ranchi Ramgarh Road near Ormanjhi. There are around 50 crocodiles.

Birsa Jaivik Udyan :  is situated at a distance of 16 km from Ranchi in Ranchi Ramgarh Road near Ormanjhi. Many species of animals,trees and plants  can be seen here.

Tagore Hill : Tagore HillThe Morhabadi Hill famous as Tagore Hill is an important tourist spot. The elder brother of Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore has built a house (Shantidham) on the hill. At the bottom of the hill is Ramakrishna Mission Ashram. 4 kms north of the city, Tagore Hill stands like sentinel - on a hilltop. Rabindranath Tagore's brother Nobel Laureate, Jyotirindranath Tagore had visited Ranch, in 1908. Charmed by the appeal of the place he had bought Morahbadi Hill and adjoining areas and built a house atop. Tagore Hill is about 300 ft. high. As the hill is associated with a history pertaining to Tagore family, it is known as Tagore Hill. A number of books are supposed to have been written by Rabindra Nath Tagore on the top of the hill.        

McCluskigunj : It is famous for European style bungalows and a tribal museum. Much of the old world charm still remaines in the valleys around McCluskiegunj. It began as an Anglo-Indian settlement, conceived and created by E T McCluskie in 1934. Those who love spending a day or two far from madding crowd come here to stay in any one of the sprawling bungalows. Many come back over and over again.

Angrabari : A temple complex almost 40 kms from Ranchi near Khunti, which showcases the temples of Lord Ganapati, Ram-Sita, Hanuman and Shiva. Angrabadi is actually, a temple complex which accommodates the temples of Lords Ganpati, Ram-Sita and Hanuman and Shiva. The Shankracharya Swami Swarupanand Saraswati, having been captivated by serene, placid and celestial beauty of Angrabadi rechristened it as Amreshwar Dham

Jaivik Udyan ( Biological Garden) :  Birsa Jaivik Udyan a zoological park, is situated at Chakla in Ormanjhi block of Ranchi, Jharkhand. It is just about 16 kms from Ranchi located in in Ranchi Ramgarh Road near Ormanjhi. Many species of animals, trees and plants can be seen here. However, the collection of mammalian faunas is the main attraction here. Birsa zoological park, also named as Birsa Jaivik Udyan, is an eco friendly tourist spot who like to know more about mammalian fauna and also to see the nature's wild .

War Cemetery : War Cemetery is an interesting site located on the Ranchi-Hazaribagh road which is the smallest 'concentration' cemetery in India with a total of 708 burials that includes soldiers of the army of undivided India. These graves well classified and have the words written in memory of the dead persons. One can find the poignant epitaphs written on the graves like "May some gentle hand in the far off land lay down a flower for us….."

Ranchi LakeRanchi Lake : A British agent, Colonel Onsely in the year 1842, excavated the centrally located Ranchi Lake. The beautiful lake is situated at the base of the Ranchi Hill. With an ethereal charm exclusively of its own, the lake stands pretty though it does not conform to its original conception. The lake is situated almost in the middle of the town, with a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva atop the Ranchi Hill. The hill also offers a kaleidoscopic view of the entire town and the surrounding areas.

Ranchi Hill  : Ranchi Hill is one of the favourite tourist attractions in Ranchi. At the summit of the Ranchi Hill there is a temple devoted to Lord Shiva. People from different corners of the country gather at the temple to offer their homage to the deity. During the festival of Shravan Mela, the place is flooded with Hindu devotees. The hill of Ranchi attracts visitors from different parts of the country to have a panoramic view of the place. At the base of the Ranchi hill there is a lake, which is known as the Ranchi Lake. This lake has enhanced the beauty of the place.

The Ranchi hill in Ranchi can be easily accessed from all corners of the city. The place is also considered to be one of the prime locations for trekking and rock climbing. For this reason, many adventure lovers are also attracted to the Ranchi Hill. Local people also use the place as a picnic spot.

Kanke Dam : Kanke Dam is a lake situated at the base of the Gonda Hills and is around 5 km from Ranchi town. The serenity of air and the uncommon scenic charm makes it an ideal place for nature lovers and group picnickers. Kanke Dam is always crowded with tourists. The Rock Garden situated nearby is another spot worth visiting.

Sidhu Kanhu Park: This park has been made in the memory of freedom fighters -“Sidhu” and “Kanhu”. Many people come here to celebrate picnic. It is situated near Morhabadi.

Tribal Research Institute and Museum : Located in Morhabadi . It shows tribal culture of Chotanagpur plateau.

Nakshatra Van
It is in the heart of the town close to the Governor House. Adjoining area have been developed to accommodate an integrated man-made forest. It is constructed in the year 2003 by State Government. It is a Designed Project in which 27 plants been planted according to the 27 planets of Astrology Science. There are children's parks, gardens, artificial hillocks, waterfalls and a musical fountain, besides a garden containing over 40 selected medicinal plants.

Panch Gagh
About 40 kms from Ranchi near Khunti, Panch Ghagh is a lovely picnic spot amidst lush green forests. It is the collective name for a group of five waterfalls (punch ghagh in the dehatl tongue) formed in a row due to the breaking up of the Banai river. Cemented walkways connect the different cataracts, of which stream 2 is the most popular while 5 is the biggest, though a bit inaccessible. You can walk down from the tourist shelter to the base of stream 2.

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FALLS

Hundru Falls : ‘Hundru Falls’ one of the most picturesque falls surrounding Ranchi.It is 45 kms from Ranchi on Ranchi-Purulia Road.. Here, the Subarnarekha river falls from a height of 320 feet. The pools at the bottom of the falls are favourite picnic and bathing spots. Hundru fall is about 45 kms away from Ranchi Town. The beautiful falls are situated on the Ranchi Purulia highway. The beauty of River Swarnarekha tumbling from a height of 320 feet is at its pristine best. At the base of the falls the water is however placid, gathering in a frothy pool where the visitors may take a rejuvenating dip.

Water Fall RanchiThe place is also popular as one of the most admired trekking destinations in the state. Therefore, adventure lovers visit Hundru falls frequently. In the rainy season, the falls flow down creating fearsome environment, but in summer, they serve as a thrilling picnic place. An English author, who wrote the 'Gazetteer of India' during British Empire, praised the place highly. He stated that the westerners would regard it as a place worth visiting even from remoteness.    

Jonha Falls : also known as Gautamdhara is around 40 Kms from Ranchi. It is approachable by both Road and train. The fall can be admired by descending around 500 steps. There is a tourist  rest house which contains Lord Buddha temple. The river Kanchi flows nearby. Named after the nearest village, Jonha is also known as Gautam Dhara as Lord Buddha is believed to have bathed here. A temple and ashram dedicated to Buddha was built atop GautamPahar by the sons of Raja Baldevdas Birla. A sign clearly proclaims that the ashram was originally meant for people of the Hindu faith as well as all branches of arya dharm(Buddhists,Jains, Sikhs, Sanatani, Aryasamajis). Locals also call Jonha the Gunga Nala because the stream apparently comes from Ganga ghat. 453 steps take you down to the waterfall and to the farflung villages of Konardih and Duarsini on the other side of the stream.

Dassam FallDassam falls: is 34 kms from Ranchi on Ranchi-Tata Road near a village called Taimara. Here, the Kachni river falls from an altitude of 144 feet makes a pretty fall. It is also known as Dassam encircled with charming scenes. The tourists are warned not to take bath in the falls or at least be careful while bathing in the stream. This fall has created the Dasham falls, which is bordered with verdant landscapes. The time between February and April is considered as an ideal period to visit the place.  

Panch Gagh falls: is on Ranchi- Chakradharpur Road about 6 kms from  Khunti. This fall consists of five streams which falls from a good height.

Hirni falls: Another beautiful waterfall amidst  forests about 70 km from Ranchi on way to Chakradharpur. Situated in a dense forest area, Hirni has been favoured by nature for scenic beauties. The tourists are carried away by emotions and flight of imagination while observing Hirni. About 80 kms from Ranchi in the southern direction Hirni is another fascinating waterfall in charming surroundings. From the car park, a walkway to the left takes you to the other side of the river to a tourist hut whereas steps to the right lead up to the top of the hill. From an observation tower at the top you can see the mighty fall and the jungles that lie beyond. A little further up there's a bridge spanning the river and a shed.
Sita Fall: Adjacent to Jonha falls is Sita falls which can be seen at its best early in the morning.

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TEMPLES

Jagannathpur TemplePahari Mandir: About 7 km away from Ranchi Railway Station Pahari Mandir is situated at Ratu Road and is about 300 ft. high. Huge crowd of Shiva devotees gather here in every Shravan month. Its real name is 'RICHI BURU'. Perhaps Pahari Mandir is the best place to have a bird's eye view of the capital Ranchi.

Jagannathpur Temple & Hill : Located 10km. south west of Ranchi is the 17th century Jagannath Temple on a hillock at Jagannathpur. Thakur Ani Nath Shahdeo, of Barkagarh Jagannathpur principality, built the temple in 1691. Its architectural styles resemble the Jagannath temple of Puri. Rath yatra or Car festival similar to that of Puri is held every year in the months of June/July. It attracts thousands of devotees both tribal and non-tribal.

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