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Simdega district is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state, India, and Simdega town is the administrative headquarters of this district. This district was carved out from erstwhile Gumla district on 30 April 2001. It is currently a part of the Red Corridor. As of 2011 it is the third least populous district of Jharkhand (out of 24), after Lohardaga and Khunti. The river Sankha is the water resource that flows through these regions.  Simdega District is situated in the southwestern part of the state of Jharkhand.  It borders with Orissa and Chhattisgarh states.  It comprises of the area, which was erstwhile the Simdega Subdivision of the district Gumla. The district is situated between 200 10 min. to 200 40 min. north   latitude and 840 0 min. to 840 34 min. east longitude. It consists of ten blocks/Circles namely Simdega, Kurdeg, Bolba, Thethaitangar, Kolebira, Bano, Jaldega, Pakartanr, Bansjore and Kersai. The landscape is formed of hills and undulating platue. In the district 1194.50 sq. km areas are covered with forest Simdega district is primarily settled by the Scheduled Tribes with 70.2 per cent population, which is the highest among all the districts of Jharkhand closely followed by Gumla district with 67.2 per cent ST population. Majority of the STs belong to the Christian faith.

History –
In the ancient days Simdega was known by the name of Biru-Kaishalpur pargana, which was reigned by Raja Katangadeo.  After his demise Maharaja Shivakarna subjugated it.  Munda and Kharia tribes entered into this part in 1441 A.D and Oraon tribe settled here in about 1503 A.D from Rohtas. For some time it was part of the Kalinga Empire and subsequently in 1336 A.D Harideo of Gang dynasty (Ganga Vanshi Gajapati Royal Family of Kalinga-Utkala Empire, Orrissa) was made king of Biru.  The Ancestors of Royal family still resides at Biru. At present Biru is situated at a distance of about 11 km from District headquarter, Simdega. Ganga Bishun Rohilla was famous freedom fighter from Simdega.


Simdega at a Glance 


200 10 min.to   200 40 min. North


840 0 min.  to  840  34 min. East

Area (in sq. km)

3761.2 Sq.km

Height from sea level (in feet)


Temperature (in degree centigrade)


Rainfall (in mm)




Literacy rate


Main Tribes

Oraons, Kharia, and Mundas

Main minerals


Main crop

Paddy, Maize, Groundnut Black Bean (Urad).

Languages spoken


Important Rivers

Sankh, Deo, Girwa, and Palamara

Nearest Railway Station


Nearest Airport


National Highway passing through District

NH- 23

Population density

160 per Sq.Km

Number of blocks


Number of villages


Population (Total)


Population (male)


Population (female)


Sex ratio


Administrative division

South Chotanagpur division



Year of  Formation

4th April 2001

Forest Area

1194.50 Sq.km (31.75 %)

Places of Tourist Interests... Main tourist attractions in and around Simdega includes

Kelaghagh dam (distance of 4 km from district. a waterdam is surrounded by multiple hills),

Bhairo Baba Pahari (a cave looking like a living body),

Ram rekha dham ( 26 K.M from simdega H.Q),

Dangadi (situated in block Bolba. A beautiful waterfall),

KetungaDham (situated in Bano Block),


Bhanwar Pahar - Bhanwar Pahar is in Kolebira Block. Various types of Black bees (Bhanwara) are found here and thus it is said Bhanwar Pahar due to this. In ancient age these flies were used as the soldiers. It is very similar to Himachal Pradesh. Flowers of Gulaitchi on the small hill is nature's gift to villagers living in the small houses on the hill. A small natural pond exists in between the stones on the hill which will have water in all seasons. Looking the ground from the top of the small hill is a great feeling. Inside Bhanwar Pahaar, one will feel the natural air conditioning system.


Kolebira - Situated just 22 km from the district headquarters this spot has its prominence of people’s inhabitance here.

Bolba - This spot is famous for the black Bengal Goat farm which is the main venture to people here, this spot is situated on the banks of Sankh River and lies close to the borders of Orissa state.

Mazar of Anjaam Peer Saheeb is inside the premise of Kolebira police station !!!! . It represents a great symbol of harmony, social policing and perhapes a single example of Mazar inside a Police Station in the world. Every Year Uras Mela is organised here and people of all community flow towards Mazar and prays for peace. Tingina can be said the Ashok Vatika of Simdega. Here no other trees except Ashoka Tree exists. It is a great gift of nature to the villagers of Tingina in Jaldega Block. Bandurga is the holy place of Goddess of Sakthi, Durga Devi and situvated in Bolba Block. This place is also a choice for visitors as a picnic spot.

How to get there
Roadways and Railways are well connected to the other spots of the country, the nearest airport is Ranchi.

                    a) Roads: - The district has good network of roadways but road condition is not up to the mark. All blocks are connected to the district headquarter through road. NH- 23 passes through the district connecting the State Capital, Ranchi and Rourkela.

                    b) Railway: - The district is deprived of adequate railway communication. District headquarter is not rail connected. Rourkela is the nearest major railway station to Simdega is situated at a distance of 70 km.  Ranchi-Rourkela rail route passes through Bano and Jaldega blocks of Simdega district. However only a few important trains do stops there. 


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